Disposable Selenium Grid

Over time your Selenium Grid might become unstable due to browsers not being closed properly, browser error popups and so on. This blogpost will cover the creation of a disposable Selenium Grid. Since the introduction of Docker the creation of containers (a kind of virtual machine) became a lot easier. With Docker-compose you can even describe your multi-container setup in a recipe-style providing step-by-step procedures.

  1. Install Docker (https://docs.docker.com/compose/install/)
  2. Put the file below somewhere
  3. Run the following command: docker-compose up

Getting the Selenium Grid Address
Use the following command to get retrieve the IP-address of your Docker container: docker-machine ip
In your script you can use http://[IP]:4444/wd/hub in order to connect to your Selenium Grid.

Scaling you Selenium Grid
With the following command you can easily scale up/down your Selenium Grid
docker-compose scale chrome=15 firefox=15

Filename: docker-compose.yml

  image: selenium/hub
    - 4444:4444

  image: selenium/node-firefox-debug
    SCREEN_WIDTH: 2880
    - 5900
    - seleniumhub:hub
  image: selenium/node-firefox
    SCREEN_WIDTH: 2880
    - 5900
    - seleniumhub:hub
  image: selenium/node-chrome
    SCREEN_WIDTH: 2880
    - 5900
    - seleniumhub:hub

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Automatically update drivers

Getting tired of downloading the latest driver into your project? You might want to take a look at gradle-download-task. This plugin allows you to download files (over HTTP and HTTPS) to a specific destination directory.

Herewith a simple example:

 * Include the gradle-download-task plugin
plugins {
    id 'de.undercouch.download' version '3.1.0'
apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'eclipse'
 * Import the Download task. This line is optional.
 * You can of course also always use the full qualified name
 * when you specify a task of type 'Download'.
import de.undercouch.gradle.tasks.download.Download
 * The following two tasks download a ZIP file and extract its
 * contents to the build directory
task downloadZipFile(type: Download) {
    dest buildDir
    acceptAnyCertificate true
    overwrite true
task downloadAndUnzipFile(dependsOn: downloadZipFile, type: Copy) {
    from zipTree('build/chromedriver_mac32.zip')
    into 'src/main/resources'
    from tarTree('build/geckodriver-v0.9.0-mac.tar.gz')
    into 'src/main/resources'
defaultTasks 'downloadAndUnzipFile'

You only need to update the version numbers (from time to time) and the files will be downloaded and extracted. (eventually in src/main/resources)

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Firefox Marionette Driver

As announced some time ago, FirefoxDriver will nolonger work after Firefox 47 has been released. There are 2 options;

  1. Downgrade Firefox (version < 47)
  2. Implement Marionette Driver. (Marionette WebDriver)

This blogpost will cover the implementation of Marionette Driver. Luckily it’s not too hard to switch to MarionetteDriver. Following these steps:

  1. Download Marionette Driver
  2. Extract the file
  3. Set the webdriver.gecko.driver property to the location path of Marionette driver
  4. Adjust the code, to something like this:
    	public void startFirefox() {
    		System.setProperty("webdriver.gecko.driver", "path/to/geckodriver");
    		final WebDriver driver = new MarionetteDriver();

Alternatively we can implement a method to find the file on path:

	private static String findFileOnPath(final String fileName) {
		return MarionetteDriverTest.class.getClassLoader().getResource(fileName).getPath();

MarionetteDriverTest is the classname.

And use it like this:

	public void startFirefox() {
		System.setProperty("webdriver.gecko.driver", findFileOnPath("geckodriver")); //assuming the file is located in the resources folder
		final WebDriver driver = new MarionetteDriver();

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Generate Leanpub Book

While writing a book (Leanpub) it might be useful to quickly replace a lot of variables in one go. Therefore I created this tool. GenerateBook-all-1.0.jar

The tool expects to following directory structure:

|-orig/ (folder containing the original files)
|-manuscript/ (if this folder does not exist it will be created)
|prop.properties (file containing all variables you want to replace)

Example prop.properties file content:
authors=Author1 and Author2

To use this tool: java -jar GenerateBook-all-1.0.jar

Example output:
Copied: orig/chapter1.md to manuscript/chapter1.md


I hope this tool is useful for you and additional features can be requested via comments.

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2015 Retrospective: a year’s reflection

My first year as a independent software testing professional. This year I worked as a Technical Test Specialist/Coach in the energy branch. My main task was/is to setup a testautomation framework and support 10+ scrum teams with creating automated testscripts.

I experienced/applied some new techniques, like: docker, vagrant, gatling, wiremock.

I initiated a interest group for technical testers. We periodically organize sessions to share knowledge about technical testing (tools / methedologies / practices).

I also achieved the following certificates:

  • Professional Scrum Master (PSM 1)
  • Professional Scrum Developer (PSD 1)
  • Professional Scrum Product Owner (PSPO 1)

Next year I will continue my current assignment.

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Testing AngularJS applications in plain Java

You might think that protractor is the way to go when testing AngularJS applications… The thing with AngularJS is that you can decide to remove all class and id‘s from the rendered html. (which is good for page rendering times, but bad for testability). In the template files there are some identifiers, but those are not visible in the rendered html, all the webelements with a template identifier have a class with the value ng-binding (or something very similar).

We have a very large broad IT-landscape with a big variety of applications. (JSF (JavaServer Faces) websites, AngularJS websites, JMX services, web services (REST and WSDL), mail server integration, PDF reader, FTP, Oracle DB and perhaps mobile in the future).

In this case I decided to write a Java-based test automation solution. Protractor is built on top of WebDriverJS. So, I thought the same actions can be done in Java. I found https://github.com/paul-hammant/ngWebDriver which suits our needs. Don’t forget to set the setScriptTimeout(), otherwise it might not work.

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Argh! What is it with the latest software testing hype??

People tend to use BDD-tools for everything those days… Don’t get me wrong behavior driven development is a great way of software design, but it’s not -just- a testing tool! It’s a way of collaboration and it aims to reduce misunderstandings.

Aslak Hellesøy, Founder Cucumber Ltd,wrote a very good blogpost about it, where he pointed out some very good points. (https://cucumber.pro/blog/2014/03/03/the-worlds-most-misunderstood-collaboration-tool.html)

When using BDD-tools you’re implementing several extra layers in your testautomation code, which you need to maintain. (Both Gherkin features and step definitions) So, if you use it just for specifying testscript then you introduce extra waste.

Like Aslak already wrote, it can be justified if it improves collaboration and reduces misunderstandings, but if the tool is of testing purpose only those benefits will obviously never happen.

I also like his point about many testers fallen in the same trap…

…they use Cucumber uniquely as a testing tool. No collaboration. No outside-in. They write Cucumber scenarios after the software instead of the other way around. Doing BDD well leads to decoupled software, which again makes it easy to reduce the duration of tests. You don’t get any of these benefits when you treat Cucumber as an afterthought. Personally I have seen many companies using BDD as an afterthought. Often they come up with the argument that ‘everybody can write the feature files’, however they don’t look at the long term effect. Because maintenance can be hell.

I hope you all read the blogpost of Aslak Hellesøy and decide to use BDD in a proper (collaborative) way or decide to not use BDD at all.

It still seems to be a very popular tool, just because things get very readable for non-techie people. They are still a lot of drawbacks: duplicates code, scenario’s written in plain text, extra abstraction layers, etc… JGiven tries to solve some of those drawbacks, as they state on there website:

  • Scenarios are written in plain Java with a fluent Java API – Neither text files, nor Groovy is needed
  • Method names are parsed at runtime and define the scenario text – No duplicate text in annotations is needed
  • Scenarios are executed by either JUnit or TestNG – No extra test runner is needed, thus JGiven works with all existing IDEs and build tools for Java out-of-the-box
  • Scenarios are composed of multiple, reusable so-called Stage classes – No more test code duplication
  • Scenarios and steps can be parameterized for writing data-driven tests
  • JGiven generates HTML reports that can be read and understand by domain experts and serve as a living documentation

So, try to use code driven BDD frameworks, if you have to use BDD-tooling, because you can apply all kinds of development practices. (… and it just makes it easier)

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Software Testing Pitfalls

In this blogpost I like to discuss some of the software testing pitfalls I encountered over the last few years. Some of them are related to software testing in general, others are related to specifically test automation (Because that is my main area of interest).

This might be a never ending discussion. My personal opinion; certification is definitely not the guarantee for a good tester, but it allows people to talk a common language. Furthermore, it gives you some proven practices and methods. How much you can use of these methods and practices, depends on the context. I often saw people who became a tester with a background in the area of development or operations. It’s funny if you hear them talk about software testing. Meetings with people without a common knowledge are not efficient at all!

Testing Techniques
I mostly work in environments where we have to test an web application. I often hear tester say that they don’t see the value of applying testing techniques, because it’s just a web application. I think this is really odd, because why should you relate the use of testing techniques to the nature of the application under test (test object)? It makes more sense to relate the use of testing techniques to the business value of the application under test. You have to test more if the business value is high and testing techniques help to produce more efficient test cases.

You will see it more often that there is less time spent on the preparation and specification phase of software testing. It’s mostly coming from teams who are saying that they apply some form of Agile. I think, you should always define some sort of testplan and test cases or test charter, regardless of the development methodology you are using. The level of detail depends on the context where you’re working in.

Test Environments
One of the most heard problems in software testing is the lack of test environments or up-to-date test environments. Utilizing modern tools we can create and distribute test environments on the fly. We also often see that data across environments is totally different. Having those two problems it”s hard to automate testing.

Development Testing
Recently I heard something funny. In a company where they apply Agile, they said: unit testing is up to the developers, we shouldn’t even look at it. (To save time…)

Developers are not testers and (probably) never will be. So, we need to help them with writing proper unit tests. Think of positive and negative cases and even testing all possibilities of a decision. (Also known as: decision testing or multiple decision determination testing) I think, it should also be our task to check periodically the quality of the unit test and verify if they still use testing techniques.

These are just a couple of pitfalls in software testing.

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Functional Test Automation on a Massive Machine

Functional test automation is relatively slow and heavy in execution. Selenium scripts for example need to launch a browser, open the website and testdata needs to be present. We can speed up testing by running the test scripts in parallel on distributed machines. This incredibly speeds up the in-browser tests and quick and accurate feedback is given.

In the time that I worked for Spil Games we decided to set up a Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) for both manual testing and automated testing. It’s essentially a single blade with 2 x 6 Intel Xeon E5-2630 @ 2.3GHz, 1 TB of solid-state drives (SSD’s) and about 130 GB of memory. Performance was an issue in the past, that’s why we have chosen for solid-state drives (the response of the virtual machine is ‘almost’ instant).

Manual testing: We had a pool of preconfigured operating systems and browser versions. The Virtual Desktop Infrastructure will create a virtual machine on demand, every time somebody wants to access a specific machine. It’s made by using VMware View that allows graphics acceleration over the PCoIP (PC-over-IP) protocol which makes it possible to test everything you want to in a browser and it is close to optimal performance.

Automated testing: We had a dedicated pool of virtual machines with DHCP reserved IP-addresses with which we can establish a Selenium Grid. We used virtual machines with Windows 7 and 3 GB of memory and all the required browsers installed. Remote test execution of the Selenium scripts is, with the described setup, even faster than execution on the local machine.


Image above created with http://www.gliffy.com/


  • Sauce Labs: Run automated Selenium tests in the cloud or manually test your site on any browser instantly. Videos, screenshots, and developer tools make debugging a snap.
  • TestingBot: Cross browser testing with Selenium Online. Automatically test your website on various browsers with Selenium.
  • BrowserStack: BrowserStack is a cross-browser testing tool, to test public websites and protected servers, on a cloud infrastructure of desktop and mobile browsers.

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Get started with Selenium WebDriver in Java and C#

As a test consultant I visit different clients. I have seen a lot of projects from various natures using different programming languages. Mostly I see projects using PHP, Java or C#. As a consultant we need to be very flexible, so we can work in those different environments. This is actually the best part of working as a consultant; you can develop a very broad knowledge.

So, I decided to put some very basic test automation projects on my personal github, written in C# and Java. These projects contain the use of a dependency management tool, Selenium/WebDriver and the basic use of the Page Object Model.


Github repository: https://github.com/roydekleijn/webdriver_java_example


Github repository: https://github.com/roydekleijn/webdriver_csharp_example

Remember these projects show you the basic usage of Selenium/WebDriver and may help you to get started with test automation.

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